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Storage tanks are available in many shapes: vertical and horizontal cylindrical; open top and closed top; flat bottom, cone bottom, slope bottom and dish bottom. Large tanks tend to be vertical cylindrical, or to have rounded corners transition from vertical side wall to bottom profile, to easier withstand hydraulic hydrostatically induced pressure of contained liquid. Since most liquids can spill, evaporate, or seep through even the smallest opening, special consideration must be made for their safe and secure handling. This usually involves building secondary containment such as a bunding, or containment dike, around the tank, so that any leakage may be safely contained. Some storage tanks need a floating roof in addition to or in lieu of the fixed roof and structure. This floating roof rises and falls with the liquid level inside the tank, thereby decreasing the vapor space above the liquid level. Floating roofs are considered a safety requirement as well as a pollution prevention measure for many industries including petroleum refining. For refineries, tanks for a particular fluid are chosen according to the flash-point of that substance. Generally in refineries and especially for liquid fuels, there are fixed roof tanks, and floating roof tanks.Fixed roof tanks are meant for liquids with very high flash points, (e.g. fuel oil, water, bitumen etc.) Cone roofs, dome roofs and umbrella roofs are usual. These are insulated to prevent the clogging of certain materials, wherein the heat is provided by steam coils within the tanks. Dome roof tanks are meant for tanks having slightly higher storage pressure than that of atmosphere (e.g. slop oil). Floating roof tanks are broadly divided into external floating roof tanks (usually called floating roof tanks: FR Tanks) and internal floating roof types (IFR Tanks). IFR tanks are used for liquids with low flash-points (e.g., ATF, MS. gasoline, ethanol). These tanks are nothing but cone roof tanks with a floating roof inside which travels up and down along with the liquid level. This floating roof traps the vapor from low flash-point fuels. Floating roofs are supported with legs or cables on which they rest. FR tanks do not have a fixed roof (it is open in the top) and has a floating roof only. Medium flash point liquids such as naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and crude oil are stored in these tanks. Reproduced under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/