Volume: 11
Issue: 1

Published:
January 05, 2015

Tank Storage Magazine

Tank Storage Magazine is the leading industry publication dedicated exclusively to the bulk liquid storage industry. It is read by terminal managers, senior engineers, logistics/distribution managers and CEOs within oil, gas and petrochemical facilities as well as third party terminal operators.



Headlines


New regulations affecting marine vapour control systems

Since 1990, the regulations for vapour control during marine loading operations have been determined by the Coast Guard and laid out in 33 CFR 154.800. A revised set of regulations, 33 CFR 154.2000, was finalised and went into effect in 2013. New facilities and those currently under constructi...


All change

In January 2015 new legislation will come into effect which will restrict fuel oil consumption in Emission Control Areas (ECA) for marine vessels. It is therefore beneficial to explore the likely impact of this piece of legislation and expected future environmental legislation on fuel oil cons...


Explaining the price plummet

It’s supply! It’s demand! It’s a price war! It’s a recession! Oil prices plunge! These same words were spoken in 2008 and 2009 when oil prices dropped more than $100 (€80) per barrel from over $140 per barrel to less than $40 per barrel. Crude oil prices went into the steepest contan...


The changing role of storage

Over the past few years there have been some interesting additions to the list of companies owning and constructing storage. Companies that trade hydrocarbons, large and small, are increasingly moving into the storage sector. How this will change the market dynamics in the long term remains to...


Opportunities in Iraq

Iraq’s oil refineries, like much of the country’s infrastructure, have suffered the effects of long periods of under-investment. Nameplate capacity currently is estimated at around 932,000 bpd, according to FACTS Global Energy (FGE) data1, but efficiencies and throughputs are typically low...


Middle East refinery investments: Good news for storage operators?

Middle East Gulf oil producers are in the midst of a surge of new refinery construction, which will see substantial new capacity added by the end of 2017. The bulk of these refinery projects are coming into the GCC region with only minor volumes anticipated from Iraq. ‘There are big refinery...


What next?

CLH, LBC, Tepsa and Vopak reflect on 2014 and take a look at what lies ahead for 2015


The sweet smell of success

Vopak Terminal Europoort is one of the biggest petroleum storage and transshipment facilities in the heavily populated harbour area of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Pumping the oil from one container (either cargo hold or land-based tank) causes the existing air inside the receiving container to...


Cold bonding: A safer alternative to hot work

k Hot work required for welding, grinding and cutting operations presents certain potential hazards when conducted in potentially explosive and flammable environments. According to the Health and Safety Executive guidance 2013, ‘flammable liquids and vapours such as petrol, diesel, fuel oil, ...


Why choose swivel-angle tank mixers

Crude oil held in storage tank farms, refineries, pipelines and terminals usually contains varying amounts of sediment and water sometimes laden with paraffin, heavy ends, sand and silt. Left unchecked, these materials can accumulate and cause corrosion of the tank floor and lower shell plates...


Double mixing in half the time

In the spring of 2014 a pipeline operator in western Canada installed two DS jet mixers to reclaim the capacity in its tank. The tank, which is 140ft in diameter, is used to store diluent. One mixer would normally be sufficient for a tank of this diameter, but the client elected to install two...


Mixing it up

There have been two primary materials used in today’s floating roof technology; aluminum and steel. The composite floating roof, however, has been catching the attention of many tank owners and operators for several reasons. Composite floating roofs are corrosion resistant, do not require pa...


First successful long range ultrasonic testing on an AST

When a tank operator discovered a leak as a result of a large crack on a tank, it set about the need for non-destructive testing (NDT). The insulated stainless steel tank measured 35ft in diameter and 36ft tall. The inspection, completed in 2012, was able to quickly assess the condition of the...


Five years on and going strong

Brenntag, one of Europe’s leaders in chemical distribution, operates with a global network with more than 480 locations in more than 70 countries. To meet and fulfil the latest operational safety and business requirements, one of its sites in the UK, Scunthorpe, embarked on an upgrade projec...


Improving throughput and safety via business intelligence

Terminal operators have long been able to track drivers from ‘gate to gate’ but a new solution goes one step further. In October US-based Toptech launched Synetics, a business intelligence solution that is able to track over 40 data points. These data points tell, among other things, exact...


Tank heating: why it needs to be more than just an afterthought

It is well known that heavy oils and asphalt need to be heated to reduce their viscosity before pumping and transportation. However, the role tank heating plays in the terminal is often underestimated. Tank cleaning is essential for three main reasons: • Petroleum oils change density with...


Sizing tank blanketing regulators using the latest API 2000 7th edition guidelines

In March 2014, API Standard 2000 (Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks) was revised. This seventh edition is the latest update and this article looks at how the latest changes affect the sizing of tank blanketing regulators, including backpressure ones used for vapour recovery sy...